About The law of 1903 gave a strong impetus to the organizational development of the cooperative movement.
The law of 1903 gave a strong impetus to the organizational development of the cooperative movement.
of this union with the trade department of the "Farmer" was created by the National Union of Economic and Trade Unions, which until 1913 p. organized 28 rural trade unions.
Its branches operated in Kolomyia, Stryi, Berezhany, Buchach, Rohatyn, Zhovkva, Zolochiv, Brody, Kamyanets-Strumylova, Radekhiv, Sambor, Terebovlia, Ternopil, Khodoriv, Sanok and other cities. In 1910 p. Ukrainian entrepreneurs organized the first national unions for the sale of cattle in Galicia, which immediately became intermediaries of the Austrian agency and began sending cattle to Vienna. In 1911 p. there were 62 such unions, they had 29,879 members. To lead these unions, the National Union for the Purchase and Sale of Livestock was established, which became one of the main suppliers of pigs from Galicia to Austrian markets.
Credit cooperatives were typical of Western Ukrainian cooperatives in the Austro-Hungarian period, as credit was a very important and easiest aspect of economic life for cooperatives to master. The demand of the population, in particular the peasantry, which was trying to find salvation from the developed usury, for loans increased, and this led to higher interest rates and increased deposits of the general population in credit unions. The growth in the number of credit unions led to the creation in 1898 p. Regional Credit Union (CCU) of the first Western Ukrainian cooperative union, which united and subjugated a significant part of Ukrainian credit cooperatives.
Its organizer and long-term chairman of the directorate https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ was a leading politician of Galician Ukrainians K. Levitsky. With the emergence of the KSK, which set itself the goal of creating new cooperatives and taking care of them, the cooperative movement revived. Every year new cooperatives joined KSK. The union issued statutes for them. instructions, printed materials, monitored their development.
In 1913 p. KSK already had 906 members, including 427 cooperatives, 1,110,000 kroons of own property, 1,706,119 kroons in deposits, 4,264,406 kroons in loans, and a total turnover of almost 106 million kroons. The number of credit cooperatives among the members of 560 KSK grew from year to year. If in 1899 p. there were 17, then in 1912 p. – already 339. Total in early 1913 p. there were 1,011 Ukrainian credit unions in Galicia.
Of all the types of industrial cooperation in Galicia, the most developed dairy. The first Western Ukrainian dairy union in the village. Zavadov near Stryj founded in 1904 p. local priest, famous Ukrainian composer O. Nyzhankivsky. A year later, when there were already 6 dairy unions, they merged as a department at the Stryi branch of the society "Enlightenment" and in 1907 p. it was reorganized into the National Economic and Dairy Union. He received significant grants from the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture and regional government agencies.
Before the First World War, there were about 100 dairy cooperatives, which processed 7 million liters of milk per year. In 1911 p. at the National Economic and Dairy Union, annual courses in office work and dairy farming were launched. The law of 1903 gave a strong impetus to the organizational development of the cooperative movement. on auditing unions of cooperatives, which introduced mandatory supervision and control over the activities of the cooperative. By this law, auditing unions had the right to self-government.
In 1904 p. the National Union of Auditors (KSR) was formed, which united the five mentioned specialized centers. In 1912 p. 552 cooperatives were subordinated to it (of which 338 credit, 47 consumer, 40 dairy, 37 for the purchase and sale of livestock, 33 different and 57 mixed). They had more than 180,000 members and a trade turnover of more than 20 million kroons. From January 1904 p. KCP began publishing the Economist magazine, which brought together a group of prominent theorists and practitioners of cooperation.
K. Pankivsky was the editor-in-chief of the magazine, the author of many theoretical articles, reviews of Ukrainian and foreign cooperative life, and the educator of the new generation of cooperators. His pupil was A. Zhuk – editor of the popular magazine KSR "Samopomich" which began publishing in 1908 p. The creation of separate cooperative unions became a crucial organizational prerequisite for the development of Western Ukrainian cooperation.
Before the First World War, three cooperatives were formed in Galicia, which directed their development organizationally and politically. The leading role among them belonged to the National Union of Auditors. Through specialized cooperatives (National Credit Union, "People’s Trade").
National Economic and Dairy Union, National Union of Economic and Trade Unions and National Union of Purchase and Sale of Livestock) until 1914 p. he subordinated about 600 Ukrainian cooperatives. Much smaller in number of cooperatives, number, and other indicators was the second Ukrainian (so-called Russian) cooperative, whose leaders adhered to the Muscovite great-power orientation and in 1909 p. united their followers in the Russian Revision Union (RRU). In 1913 p. it numbered about 100 cooperatives.
The third cooperative union is the State National Patronage of Agricultural Unions, founded in 1899. in the interests of Polish industrialists and landowners in accordance with the decisions of the Galician Sejm. In addition to Polish and mixed cooperatives, it united more than 400 Ukrainian cooperatives. Total in early 1913 p. in Galicia, out of the total number (4191) of Ukrainian cooperatives, there were 1256. They included some of the Ukrainian cooperatives that were not united in unions. In parallel with Galicia, a cooperative movement developed in Bukovina.
The first Ukrainian savings and loan fund of the Raiffeisen type appeared in 1889. in the village of Ranches near Chernivtsi. In 1896 p. a city credit cooperative was founded in Chernivtsi. Rural "Raiffeisen" of universal type became the most widespread in the region. In 1903 p. in Chernivtsi, their union organization "Peasant Fund" was founded. It was the organizational, auditing and financial center of all types of Ukrainian cooperation in Bukovyna. In 1912 p. The Peasant Cashier owned 174 cooperatives, of which 159 were rural "Raiffeisen", 3 other credit unions, 8 consumer, 2 dairy and 2 others. The Peasant’s Fund provided loans to allied cooperatives and individuals, supplied Raiffeisen women and consumer cooperatives, and ran a dairy department and audited their activities. The chairman of its council was S. Smal-Stotsky, a professor at the University of Chernivtsi, who did much to develop the socio-political life of Bukovina.
In 1909 p. 8,550,516 kroons of the balance of the "Peasant Cash Register" of own capital accounted for 207,845 kroons, savings deposits of 1,900,307 kroons, the rest were bank loans. In addition to the cooperatives united in the "Peasant Fund" before the First World War in Bukovina, there were 26 other funds, organized by Muscovite activists. In Transcarpathia, Ukrainian cooperation emerged during the so-called Verkhovyna action, which since the late 90’s of the XIX century. carried out by the Mukachevo branch of the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture on the initiative of Bishop Firtsak Expository in the early XX century. managed to slightly increase the number of credit unions.
In 1902 p. in the Uzhansky committee there were credit unions in Perechyn, Chornoholovo, Zarychev, V. Berezny, Stavny, Khudlov, in the Maramures region in the village Dubovo, Hanichi and others. In 1900-1913 p. the number of credit unions in Transcarpathia increased from 31 to 206, and their members – from 7900 to 51 thousand, ie 6.5 times. Accordingly, borrowed capital grew. In 1909 p. it reached 4.9 crowns.
Credit unions’ equity (equity, interest on loans, reserve capital and other income) increased from 430 thousand kroons in 1900 p. to 2900 thousand in 1913 p., ie almost 7 times. However, despite this increase, their share in the total amount of funds held by the unions was insignificant. In 1909 p. the unions’ own funds accounted for 29%, the share of deposits – 18, and funds borrowed from banks – 53%.
The government’s financial assistance to Transcarpathian credit unions was also insignificant. In 1911 p. credit unions of four committees received only 13.5 thousand kroons of state loan (less than 100 kroons per union), of which was spent on salaries to the heads of unions and accountants b thousand kroons. The role of cooperation in the system of credit and trade was insignificant.
Cooperative unions met about 20% of the needs of peasants in borrowed funds, and the share of supply and marketing cooperatives in agriculture was 10-15% and increased slowly. Before the First World War, there was no regional cooperative union in Transcarpathia. Therefore, most local cooperatives were subordinated to cooperative unions in Budapest.
Total in early 1913 p. in Austria-Hungary there were 1,525 Ukrainian cooperatives, or 8.1% of their total number. Thus, in the late XIX – early XX centuries. the Ukrainian cooperative movement, despite great difficulties and obstacles, has developed significantly. He became an important factor in the economic, cultural and spiritual uplift of the Ukrainian people. Ukrainian citizenship saw cooperation as one of the concrete forms of democracy that brought Ukraine closer to the West.
Ukrainian economic literature of the 60-70s of the XX century. Abstract
The abstract provides information on the main directions of development of problems of economic theory in the Ukrainian economic literature of 60-70s of the XX century.
In the 1930s, Stalin dealt a devastating blow to Ukraine’s political economy. After the conference of Marxist agrarians, the persecution and destruction of all economists who had their own principled position began.
The revival of economic thought in Ukraine began only in the 60’s.
At this time, the works of I. Lukinov, Y. Pakhomov, V. Kornienko, I. Yastremsky are published, which propose a change in approaches to determining the role of political economy in socio-economic transformations.
There are fundamental works on the problems of economic mechanism development, such as the problems of national economic planning (O. Petrov, L. Gorelik, P. Pershin, etc.).
A new categorical apparatus was formed and reflected in the works of economists: Yu. Pakhomov, A. Chukhno, S. Dzyubyk, V. Logvinenko, Y. Palkin, M.